Dystonia

INDEX

There have been rather significant changes, all for the better, in the classification of dystonia.

Note firstly that the following terms are not of great value, or have been discarded:

A 2013 Consensus Statement improved the previous dystonia classification system and now recommends defining dystonia under two axes4:

Axis 1: Clinical features

Axis 2: Aetiology

The aim of the system is that, once a patient is classified phenomenologically according to the first axis (see figure below), a dystonia syndrome may then be defined, which is diagnostically useful5.

 

Axis I: Clinical Features: Defining the phenomena associated with dystonia         

 

Age of onset

Activating Condition

Body distribution

Temporal pattern

Coexistence of other movement disorders, and other neurological manifestations