Dystonia with MRI evidence of brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

Dystonia with basal ganglia calcification

Dystonia with basal ganglia lesions (other than brain iron accumulation)

Dystonia with leukoencephalopathy

Progressive dystonia with normal brain MRI or generalised atrophy



  1. Fung VS, Jinnah HA, Bhatia K, Vidailhet M. Assessment of patients with isolated or combined dystonia: an update on dystonia syndromes. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun 15;28(7):889-98. doi: 10.1002/mds.25549. PMID: 23893445; PMCID: PMC4216675.