Dystonia

INDEX

 

 

 

Dystonia with or without parkinsonism of infantile or childhood onset

Dystonia and parkinsonism of adolescent and young adult onset

Dystonia and parkinsonism in older adults

 

 


     Differential Diagnosis


     Investigations to consider

     Dopa-responsive dystonia

     GTP1 cyclohyrolase gene, tyrosine hydroxylase gene and other
     genes; CSF analysis, DAT SPECT, Dopa-challenge

     

     Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 disease (NBIA1), and familial basal ganglia calcifications

     
     

     Young-onset Parkinsonism (e.g. Parkin): dystonia may be present intermittently, as exercise-
     induced paroxysmal foot dystonia, and this may even be a presenting feature

     Genetic testing (e.g. Parkin gene, etc.)
     
     Wilson s disease
 
     
     Copper/caeruloplasmin, slit lamp examination, (ATP7B gene)
   
     Kufor-Rakeb disease
     
     ATP13A2 gene
 
     
     PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration
 
     PLA2G6 gene
     
     Atypical Parkinsonian disorders: PSP, CBD, MSA
 
 
     
     Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References