Dystonia

INDEX

1.            Perinatal brain injury

Dystonic cerebral palsy, delayed-onset dystonia.

2.            Infection

Viral encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.).

3.            Drug

Levodopa and dopamine agonists, neuroleptics (dopamine receptor blocking drugs), anticonvulsants, and calcium channel blockers.

4.            Immune-mediated

Acquired disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), autoimmune or paraneoplastic encephalitis (most frequently NMDAR antibody-associated encephalitis)

5.            Toxic

Heroin, carbon monoxide, manganese, cobalt, carbon disulphide, cyanide, methanol, disulfiram, and 3-nitropropionic acid.

6.            Vascular

Ischemia, hemorrhage, and arteriovenous malformation (including aneurysm).

7.            Neoplastic

Brain tumour, and paraneoplastic encephalitis.

8.            Brain injury

Head trauma, brain surgery (including stereotactic ablations), and electrical injury.

9.            Metabolic

Hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, hypocalcaemia, hypoparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hepato-cerebral degeneration, uraemia.

10.          Functional